Monday, 2 October 2017

Kebaikan Kopi Dari Segi Kesihatan


Terdapat banyak kajian yang menunjukkan pengambilan kopi yang kerap adalah selamat malah mempunyai kesan yang baik terhadap kesihatan. Pengambila kopi sehingga 5 cawan sehari bukan sahaja dapat memperbaiki kesihatan mental dan tubuh badan, malah dapat meningkatkan jangka hayat hidup! [1].

Kebaikan Kopi Dari Segi Kesihatan


Selain itu, banyak lagi kajian kajian yang telah dijalankan berkenaan pengambilan minuman kopi ini yang menunjukkan impak yang positif terhadap kesihatan dan tubuh badan. Antaranya termasuklah : 

Panjang umur



2 kajian [2, 3] yang diterbitkan pada 10 julai 2017 dalam  “Annals of Internal Medicine” melaporkan pengambilan kopi dapat dikaitkan dengan penurunan risiko kematian daripada pelbagai faktor. Walaubagaimanapun, kajian ini dijalankan untuk pelbagai etnik dan bangsa hanya di kawasan eropah.


Penyakit jantung



Walaupun agak pelik kerana bahan aktif kopi iaitu caffeine dikenali sebagai bahan yang boleh meningkatkan tekanan darah, namun penemuan menunjukkan ianya dapat mengurangkan risiko beberapa jenis penyakit jantung seperti penyakit koronari[6], kegagalan jantung[7], dan fibrilasi atrium[8].

Angin ahmar (strok)


Sebuah kajian meta analisis [15] menunjukkan pengambilan satu sehingga 6 cawan kopi sehari dapat mengurangkan risiko penyakit angina ahmar sebanyak 17% dan sebuah lagi kajian yang dijalankan dalam kalangan wanita di sweeden menunjukkan pengurangan risiko penyakit strok sebanyak 22-25% [16].

Kajian lain yang dilakukan secara meta-analisis [17] menunjukkan pengambilan kopi sebanyak 1 hingga 3 cawan sehari bagi mereka yang tidak mempunyai penyakit cerebrovascular dapat mengurangkan kebarangkalian mereka dihinggapi penyakit angin ahmar.

Sebuah kajian yang dilakukan di jepun mendapati pengambilan minuman kopi selama 13 tahun dapat mengurangkan risiko penyakit strok sehingga 20%.[18]


Kencing manis (Diabetes)



Minuman kopi sebenarnya memainkan peranan yang penting dalam mengawal kepekatan gula dalam darah, dan peningkatan lemak dalam badan yang tidak terkawal. Beberapa kajian telah Berjaya menunjukkan kaitan antara minuman kopi dan peningkatan metabolsme glukosa, penghasilan insulin, dan mengurangkan risiko mengidap penyakit kencing manis secara signifikan.[19-23]

Pakar kesihatan berpendapat kaitan antara kopi dan diabetes ini mungkin disebabkan oleh kesan anti-inflamatorinya dan kesan anti-oksida asid chlorogenic yang mengurangkan penyerapan glokosa.[24]

Kanser



Terdapat kajian yang mengaitkan antara pengambilan minuman kopi dan pengurangan risiko beberapa jenis kanser termasuklah kanser endometrial, (dengan pengambilan sebanyak 4 cawan sehari)[25], kanser prostate (6 cawan kopi sehari) [26], kanser “head and neck” (4 cawan kopi sehari) [27,28] dan kanser payudara (lebih daripada 5 cawan kopi sehari) [29,30] dan beberapa jenis kanser yang lain [32]

Manfaat kopi ini mungkin disebabkan kebaikan kopi sebagai anti-oksida dan ciri-ciri kopi itu sendiri yang merupakan anti-mutagenik (anti-kanser).  [33,34]. Dan yang terbaru, sebuah kajian Berjaya menunjukkan penurukan insiden “colorectal” yang signifikan bagi mereka yang mengambil minuman kopi lebih daripada 2.5 cawan sehari. [35]


Penguat ingatan


Selain bermanfaat sebagai bahan yang menstimulasi kecerdasan otak secara cepat, kopi dilihat mampu memberikan kesan jangka panjang yang baik terhadap otak. Sebuah kajian [33] menunjukkan pesakit yang sederhana nyanyuk yang meminum 3 hingga 5 cawan kopi sehari dapat menghalang daripada penyakit tersebut daripada menjadi lebih teruk. Kajian lain juga telah menunjukkan kaitan antara caffeine dalam menguatkan ingatan[34].


Kemurungan


Kajian telah menunjukkan pengambilan minuman kopi boleh meningkatkan kesihatan mental dan menghalang dari berlaku kemurungan.[37,38]

Dan satu kajian yang dijalankan kepada wanita yang meminum 2 hingg 3 cawan kopi sehari mempunyai penurunan risiko menghadapi kemurungan sehingg 15% berbanding mereka yang meminum kopi kurang daripada 1 cawan kopi seminggu. Malah, mereka yang mengambil lebih daripada 4 cawan kopi sehari berlaku penurunan risiko kemurungan sebanyak 20%!

Kesan jangka masa pendek terhadap mood ini datang daripada perubahan aktiviti serotonin dan dopamine dalam badan, manakala kesan jangka masa panjang kemungkinan disebabkan oleh kesan anti-oksida dan anti-inflamatori yang terdapat dalam kopi.[39-42]


Lain –lain kajian


Selain itu, terdapat juga kajian lain yang telah Berjaya membuktikan kebaikan kopi antaranya :

Mengurangkan “dry-eye syndrome”[50]
Mengurangkan risiko gout [51]
Membantu melawan jankitan kuman sehingga dikatakan mampu melindungi badan daripada kuman methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA)[52]


Keburukan kopi 



Setiap benda ada keburukannya, terutamanya kalau diambil berlebihan. Air kosong pun kalau minum banyak sangat boleh memudharatkan. Bagi keburukan kopi pula, selain meningkatkan tekanan darah tinggi, kopi juga turut menyumbang dan memburukkan lagi keresahan, geletar, dan berpotensi untuk meningkatkan risiko glaucoma [53]


Kurangkan gula


Harus diingatkan agar jika hendak mengambil minuman kopi, awasi kandungan gula yang terdapat didalamnya. Dan sudah semestinya kopi pra campuran 3in1 yang tinggi kandungan gulanya adalah lebih membawa mudharat berbanding kebaikan.



Dipetik dan diolah dari :
Stetka BS (2017 Sept 15). How Healthy Is Coffee? The Latest Evidence. Medscape. Dari http://www.medscape.com/slideshow/coffee-6004434

Rujukan kajian:
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2. Gunter MJ, Murphy N, Cross AJ, et al. Coffee drinking and mortality in 10 European countries: a multinational cohort study. Ann Intern Med. 2017 Aug 15. [Epub ahead of print] Abstract
3. Park SY, Freedman ND, Haiman CA, et al. Association of coffee consumption with total and cause-specific mortality among nonwhite populations. Ann Intern Med 2017 Aug 15. [Epub ahead of print]Abstract
4. Freedman ND, Park Y, Abnet CC, Hollenbeck AR, Sinha R. Association of coffee drinking with total and cause-specific mortality. N Engl J Med. 2012;366:1891-1904.
5. Crippa A, Discacciati A, Larsson SC, Wolk A, Orsini N. Coffee consumption and mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer: a dose-response meta-analysis. Am J Epidemiol. 2014;180:763-775.
6. Wu JN, Ho SC, Zhou C, et al. Coffee consumption and risk of coronary heart diseases: a meta-analysis of 21 prospective cohort studies. Int J Cardiol. 2009;137:216-225.
7. Mostofsky E, Rice MS, Levitan EB, Mittleman MA. Habitual coffee consumption and risk of heart failure: a dose response meta-analysis. Circ Heart Fail. 2012;5:401-405. http://circheartfailure.ahajournals.orgAccessed August 6, 2015.
8. Cheng M, Hu Z, Lu X, Huang, J, Gu D. Caffeine intake and atrial fibrillation incidence: dose response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Can J Cardiol. 2014 30:448-454.
9. Dixit S, Stein PK, Dewland TA. Consumption of "healthy" caffeinated products and cardiac ectopy. Program and abstracts of the Heart Rhythm Society 2015 Scientific Sessions; May 13-15, 2015; Boston, Massachusetts. Abstract PO01-113.
10. Larsson SC, Orsini N. Coffee consumption and risk of stroke: a dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies. Am J Epidemiol. 2011;174:993-1001.
11. Natella F, Nardini M, Belelli F, Scaccini C. Coffee drinking induces incorporation of phenolic acids into LDL and increases the resistance of LDL to ex vivo oxidation in humans. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;86:604-609.
12. Gómez-Ruiz JA, Leake DS, Ames JM. In vitro antioxidant activity of coffee compounds and their metabolites. J Agric Food Chem. 2007;55:6962-6969.
13. Nardini M, D'Aquino M, Tomassi G, Gentili V, Di Felice M, Scaccini C. Inhibition of human low-density lipoprotein oxidation by caffeic acid and other hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives. Free Radic Biol Med. 1995;19:541-552.
14. Montagnana M, Favaloro EJ, Lippi G. Coffee intake and cardiovascular disease: virtue does not take center stage. Semin Thromb Hemost. 2012;38:164-177.
15. Larsson SC, Orsini N. Coffee consumption and risk of stroke: a dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies. Am J Epidemiol. 2011;174:993-1001.
16. Larsson SC, Virtamo J, Wolk A. Coffee consumption and risk of stroke in women. Stroke. 2011;42:908-912.
17. D'Elia L, Cairella G, Garbagnati F, et al. Moderate coffee consumption is associated with lower risk of stroke: meta-analysis of prospective studies. J Hypertens. 2012;30 (Suppl A):e107.
18. Kokubo Y, Iso H, Saito I, et al. The impact of green tea and coffee consumption on the reduced risk of stroke incidence in Japanese population: the Japan public health center-based study cohort. Stroke. 2013;44:1369-1374.
19. Huxley R, Lee CM, Barzi F, et al. Coffee, decaffeinated coffee, and tea consumption in relation to incident type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review with meta-analysis. Arch Intern Med. 2009;169:2053-2063.
20. Sartorelli DS, Fagherazzi G, Balkau B, et al. Differential effects of coffee on the risk of type 2 diabetes according to meal consumption in a French cohort of women: the E3N/EPIC cohort study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010;91:1002-1012.
21. Floegel A, Pischon T, Bermann MM, Teucher B, Kaaks R, Boeing H. Coffee consumption and risk of chronic disease in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Germany study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012;95:901-908.
22. Bhupathiraju SN, Pan A, Manson JE, Willett WC, van Dam RM, Hu FB. Changes in coffee intake and subsequent risk of type 2 diabetes: three large cohorts of US men and women. Diabetologia. 2014;57:1346-1354.
23. Koloverou E, Panagiotako DB, Pitsavos C, et al. The evaluation of inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers on coffee-diabetes association: results from the 10-year follow-up of the ATTICA Study (2002-2012). Eur J Clin Nutr. 2015;69:1220-1225.
24. Vinson JA, Burnham B, Nagendran MV, et al. Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a green coffee bean extract in overweight subjects. Program and abstracts of the 243rd American Chemical Society National Meeting and Exposition; March 25-29, 2012; San Diego, California. Abstract 92.
25. Je Y, Hankison SE, Tworoger SS, De Vivo I, Giovannucci E. A prospective cohort study of coffee consumption and risk of endometrial cancer over a 26-year follow-up. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2011;20:2487-2495.
26. Wilson KM, Kasperzyk JL, Rider JR, et al. Coffee consumption and prostate cancer risk and progression in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2011;8;103:876-884.
27. Turati F, Galeone C, La Vecchia C, Garavello W, Tavani A. Coffee and cancers of the upper digestive and respiratory tracts: meta-analyses of observational studies. Ann Oncol. 2011;22:536-544.
28. Galeone C, Tavani A, Pelucchi C, et al. Coffee and tea intake and risk of head and neck cancer: pooled analysis in the international head and neck cancer epidemiology consortium. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2010;19:1723-1736.
29. Li J, Seibold P, Chang-Claude J, et al. Coffee consumption modifies risk of estrogen-receptor negative breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res. 2011;13:R49.
30. Bhoo-Pathy N, Peeters PH, Uiterwaal C, et al. Coffee and tea consumption and risk of pre- and postmenopausal breast cancer in the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort study. Breast Cancer Res. 2015;17:15.
31. Song F, Qureshi AA, Han J. Increased caffeine intake is associated with reduced risk of basal cell carcinoma of the skin. Cancer Res. 2012;72:3282-3289.
32. Loftfield E, Freedman ND, Graubard BI, et al. Coffee drinking and cutaneous melanoma risk in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2015;107.
33. Cao C, Loewenstein DA, Lin X, et al. High blood caffeine levels in MCI linked to lack of progression to dementia. J Alzheimer Dis. 2012;30:559-572.
34. Borota D, Murray E, Keceli G, et al. Post-study caffeine administration enhances memory consolidation in humans. Nat Neurosci. 2014;17:201-203.
35. Schmit SL, Rennert HS, Rennert G, Gruber SB. Coffee consumption and the risk of colorectal cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2016;25:634-639.
36. Ross W, Duda J, Abbott R, et al. Association of coffee caffeine consumption with brain Lewy pathology in the Honolulu-Asia Aging Study. Program and abstracts of the 64th Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Neurology; April 21-28, 2012; New Orleans, Louisiana. Abstract S42.005.
37. Lucas M, Mirzaei F, Pan A, et al. Coffee, caffeine, and risk of depression among women. Arch Intern Med. 2011;171:1571-1578.
38. Brooks M. Sweetened drinks may boost depression, coffee reduces it. Medscape Medical News. January 9, 2013. http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/777356 Accessed August 17, 2015.
39. Lucas M, Mirzaei F, Pan A, et al. Coffee, caffeine, and risk of depression among women. Arch Intern Med. 2011;171:1571-1578.
40. Pasco JA, Nicholson GC, Williams LJ, et al. Association of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein with de novo major depression. Br J Psychiatry. 2010;197:372-377.
41. Ng F, Berk M, Dean O, Bush AI. Oxidative stress in psychiatric disorders: evidence base and therapeutic implications. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2008;11:851-876.
42. O'Connor A. Coffee drinking linked to less depression in women. New York Times. February 13, 2012.http://well.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/09/26/coffee-drinking-linked-to-less-depression-in-women/Accessed August 6, 2015.
43. Molloy JW, Calcagno CJ, Williams CD, Jones FJ, Torres DM, Harrison SA. Association of coffee and caffeine consumption with fatty liver disease, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, and degree of hepatic fibrosis. Hepatology. 2012;55:429-436.
44. Gallus S, Tavani A, Negri E, La Vecchia C. Does coffee protect against liver cirrhosis? Ann Epidemiol. 2002;12:202-205.
45. Bambha K, Wilson LA, Unalp A, et al; Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis Clinical Research Network (NASH CRN). Coffee consumption in NAFLD patients with lower insulin resistance is associated with lower risk of severe fibrosis. Liver Int. 2014;34:1250-1258.
46. Modi AA, Feld JJ, Park Y, et al. Increased caffeine consumption is associated with reduced hepatic fibrosis. Hepatology. 2010;51:201-209.
47. Birerdinc A, Stepanova M, Pawloski L, Younossi M. Caffeine is protective in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2012;35:76-82.
48. Saab S, Mallam D, Cox GA 2nd, Tong MJ. Impact of coffee on liver diseases. Liver Int. 2014;34:495-504.
49. Chalasani NP. Acute alcoholic hepatitis in the United States: Clinical characteristics, outcomes and relationship with PNPLA3 genotype and coffee drinking. Program and abstracts of the American College of Gastroenterology 2016 Annual Scientific Meeting; October 14-19, 2016; Las Vegas, Nevada.
50. Arita R, Yanagi Y, Honda N, Maeda S, et al. Caffeine increases tear volume depending on polymorphisms within the adenosine A2a receptor gene and cytochrome P450 1A2. Ophthalmology. 2012;119:972-978.
51. Choi HK, Willett W, Curhan G. Coffee consumption and risk of incident gout in men: a prospective study. Arthritis Rheum. 2007;56:2049-2055.
52. Matheson EM, Mainous AG, Everett CJ, King DE. Tea and coffee consumption and MRSA nasal carriage. Ann Fam Med. 2011;9:299-304.
53. Jiwani AZ, Rhee DJ, Brauner SC, et al. Effects of caffeinated coffee consumption on intraocular pressure, ocular perfusion pressure, and ocular pulse amplitude: a randomized controlled trial. Eye (Lond). 2012; 26:1122-1130.



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